INSNET, Spring 1998
Neurological Sciences - Polish Academy of Science, the Polish Neuroscience Society and the Polish Society of neurolinguistics.
Summing up, neuropsychology as a formal and recognized discipline, has been developing in Poland. There is now better access to neuropsychological publications and information about activities in other countries through the Internet. The general trend includes more involvement of psychologists in health care. Unfortunately, the financial situation of the health and education systems often do not permit the performance research, prevents the realization of plans, and decreases effective treatment. In medical settings, there is an increasing need for shared efforts and knowledge between therapists, psychologists, neurologists, and psychiatrists. Despite limitations and challenges, neuropsychology is growing in Poland the future is hopeful.
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NEUROPSYCHOLOGY IN JAPAN
By Namiko Nihashi, M.A.
Department of Psychiatry
School of Medicine
Yokohama City University
3-9 Fukuura Kanazawa-ku
This is a brief review of neuropsychology in Japan from the viewpoint of a clinical psychologist with a great interest in neuropsychology.
In Japan, we have a homogeneous culture and language, although there are some local customs and dialects. Japan has at least a linguistic feature quite different from other countries. We have three kinds of writing letters. They are usually mixed in reading and writing. They consist of a morphogram, Chinese characters originated in China, and two phonograms, Hiragana and Katakana. Chinese characters have two processes; one is a semantic reading process and the other is a phonological reading process. When we see Chinese characters, we can some times understand the meaning of then even if we cannot read it. This complex system of recording language makes it difficult to get the proper results from neuropsychological tests, especially when we try and translate foreign languages word for word.
In Japan, neuropsychology was developed with German "Gehirnpathologie". The first three greatest neuropsychological works were "Apraxia" written by Haruo Akimoto,(1935), "Aphasie, ihre eigenartigen Ersheinungen in der japanischen Sprache" proposed by Ituro Imura,(1943), and "Gehirnpathologie" by Heroshi Ohashi,(1965). These may be called classics of neuropsychology in Japan.
The Social Gathering of Neuropsychology started in 1977 and developed into The Neuropsychological Society in 1982. It publishes an official bulletin, "Neuropsychology". The Neuropsychology Society is