disorders in their countries. If there were psychologists from China present at the meeting, they did not identify themselves to me. My impression, from the presentations and from conversations with health professionals at the meeting, is that the state of neuropsychological assessment in China, let alone the rest of Southeast Asia, is rather undeveloped, and that there may be a largely unrecognized need for such professional contribution. (Email Allan_Mirsky@nih.gov)


Historical Perspective: Neuropsychology in South America Southern Region

By Victor Feld, Ph.D. (Argentina)

The first school of neuropsychology in the southern region of South America was

founded around the mid 50's. On the 18th of August of 1958, at the old Hospital Maciel in the Institute of Neurology headed by Professor Roman Arana, , Celica and Carlos Mendilaharsu assembled what was initially known as the Language Laboratory. Its beginnings were marked by a strong participation of neurology as the mother discipline. It focused primarily on the acquisition and pathology of language. Professor Arana's work has been edited in various volumes which have received a great deal of attention in Latin American.

We pay homage to the late Dr. Fernando Daimis who was the pioneer of modern Uruguayan neuropsycbology. Dr. Fernando Daimis sadly passed away this year. He was instrumental in continuing the School of Mendilabarsu. Both Daimis and

Mendilaharsu were attracted by the wisdom of their teachers, the French Juliin de Ajuriagueffa and Henri Hdcaen.

Mendilaharsu and Daimfis assembled a group of investigators, teachers, and professionals. During the last few years of his life, the work of Dalm4is in aspects of pathology of dementia and memory was extremely important. Other Uruguayan groups also became quite active in pediatric neuropsychology and its diagnosis. During the 60's, batteries were standardized for study of language in children and adults. New ways to study the problems tied to visuo- constructive abilities using the model of figure copying were also standardized . Research also emphasized the aphasias and other localization syndromes. Piagetian psychology had a major influence.

Neuropsychology was introduced in Argentina through the work of B. Quir6s during the 60's. His line of investigation focused on the problems of learning. Simultaneously a new interests developed and were inspired by 1) the experience of the old masters of European of the turn of the century and 2) the main theories of the Russian School of Pavlov, Luria, and Vigotsky. The systematic study of neurophysiology and pathophysiology opened a vast flurry of activity in the clinic, investigation, and teaching. The work of Dr. Juan E. Azcoaga developed academic interests at the Psychology Department of the University of Buenos Aires. From that institution and through numerous associations of research and teaching, Azcoaga published a number of consequential articles and books.

In Uruguay and Argentina the interruption of democracy brought about by the military dictatorships hampered the continuity of the enterprise. The families of Mendilaharsu and Azcoaga had to take refuge in private nonprofit organizations. The restitution of democracy, however, allowed the eventual progression and growth of neuropsychology in large professional sectors. Interest spread to psychopedagogy, speech and hearing sciences, education, and psychology. Intense activity started in both adult and pediatric work, including clinical and research activities.

Later, during the 1980's, the panorama was amplified to other areas of our countries with a focus on what is being referred to as the New Cognitive Sciences.

In the Republic of Chile, neuropsychological investigation started with the work of J..GonzAtez in 1969. This was continued by Dr. Archibaido Donoso in aspects of adult neuropsychology, M. M. Pavez, M. A Saavedra, M. Santander, and Luis Bravo Vaidivieso in the area of developmental teaming disabilities. In Peru, A. Ciceres was instrumental in introducing European (particularly French) neuropsychology, with emphasis on the contributions of H6caen and Lbermitte. Ciceres' publications began to appear during the 1970's. In 1972, the second world symposium on dyslexia was organized in Lima under the auspices of the World Federation of Neurology, and in 1973, the second Pan American Congress of Audition and Language was assembled.

In August of 198 1, an International Congress of Neuropsychology sponsored the Institute Neurol6gico de Colombia. A total of 700 attendees gathered. At that meeting, initial steps were taken for what during a later meeting in Argentina eventually became the Sociadad Latino Arnericana de Neuropsicologia. During the following years, a number of national neuropsychological societies emerged (M6xico, Perii, Columbia, Chile, and Argentina). Later the societies of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Brazil were formed. The Bolivian Society of Neuropsychology has been in existence since 1995. (Email feld@unluOl.edu.ar)

(Translation by Lidia Artiola)

ELC Update

By Lidia Artiola, Ph.D., Chairperson During this past year the Liaison committee

has implemented three projects:

The Book and Journal Depositary has received a sizable number of donations from neuropsychologists in the United States, Canada, and Europe and it has begun

distribution to worthy applicants from Africa and Latin America. This effort has been masterfully coordinated by Bernice Mareopolus in Virginia. We continue to need the support of the INS membership so that this projmt can continue to grow.

* We now have a substantial number of donations of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. We encourage those of you in overseas institutions to apply for these subscriptions.

* A group of nearly twenty English-speaking neuropsychologists have kindly volunteered to edit manuscripts by non-English-speaking colleagues. The service is offered to those neuropsychologists who may have journal submissions to English-languagejoumals but who may not feel quite comfortable enough with the English language and who may wish to have their work edited for English language usage. The English Language Consullants are now accepting manuscripts. It is noted that the material should be submitted in English. Translation services are not offered at this point.

* A group of fifteen neuropsychologists with fluency in various languages (including Dutch, French, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, and Spanish) have volunteered to respond to those of you who may wish to use their consulting services in their respective languages. This would be particularly useful to those of you who reside in English-speaking countries and who wish to work with patients or population samples of immigrants whose primary language is not English.

The Liaison Committee is now into its second year. The challenges have been numerous. We have not, as yet all been able to meet face to face. Given the economic realities faced by a number of us, it is unlikely that we will all be able to meet in the same room in the near future. Use of electronic mail has partially eased the pain of having to wait for responses for lengthy periods of time. More importantly, the problems which are before each of the committee members are quite diverse. Indeed, for the Africans, Latin Americans, Eastern Europeans, and many Asians, the chief

concern is accessibility to basic information in our field. Conversely, the Europeans, the Canadians, and the North Americans are more focused on issues of communication amongst clinicians and researchers and representation within the INS. It is clear that at this point in the development of the committee's role there cannot be a master plan which can take care of everyone's wishes. What is feasible, however, are small projects which can be brought forth and implemented by a small number of individuals with similar interests. Those of you who have possible projects (and energy to bring them to fruition) which may foster the cause of international neuropsychology are urged to come forth with your ideas.

Increasing the international impact of the Society will require individual dedicated commitments.